The “Pyrolyzer Gasifier” is an implant which is the result of extensive and energetic research.
Its unprecedented uniqueness and innovativeness have allowed the patenting, owned by Piromak Ltd, the enterprise which invented the implant. Its basic function is represented by the gasification capacity of organic waste, such as biomass (wood, shrubs, vegetable fibers, dried organic sludge, olive pomace, grape seed, plant residues from industrial changes, dried undergrowth layer, dried animal dung, slaughter wastes, yarns, leather, etc.), rubber (scrap tires), various plastics, polyethylene, Fluff, etc.
The gasification consists in dry distilling and at high temperatures the above products, or other types of materials, in order to obtain a gas mixture also called Singas or Synthetic Gas (CH4 + CO + H2-CO2) with a heating power from 5-8000 kcal/m3, basically comparable to CH4 (methane).
This procedure also allows to obtain a decent amount of methyl alcohol like (CH3OH) comparable to unleaded petrol.
At the end of the process we will be able to obtain a carbonaceous compound similar to the charcoal obtained from wood, that according to the type of the gasified material will have the inherent characteristics.
The main characteristic of the obtained compound is its excellent fuel properties, since it is carbon for 90-98%.
In the majority of cases it becomes active coal and therefore can be marketed as such obtaining a high intake.
Alternatively, if you do not want to commercialize it or use it for one of its various applicasions, it may be used as fuel for the process.
Usually the “pirodistilgasogeno” has a rather bulky size, however, it can also be realized in specimens of smaller size, other substantial feature of this system. This allows you to be able to get it at a lower cost and faster amortization.
The “pirodistilgasogeno” ‘s performance is estimated with approximate values, this is because the field of products to be inserted is extremely diverse. It is our will trying to predict a production of gas and hydrocarbons which is as close to reality as possible, as to avoid to overestimate and, consequently, make the supplied data less indicative.
Transparency and objectivity of the information we provide is, in fact, one of our key priorities, in order to both safeguard our good name of honest people, and to allow, to anyone reading this report, to have precise calculations so to build a personal business plan.
Claims: Piromak, in the person of its founder Domenico Tanfoglio, has a long history in the field of gasification.
Already in 1981 he introduced the patent of the gasogen (Patent of Industrial Invention no. 1180345).
In recent times, we witness the birth and spread of a kind of trend that sees the term “gasification” subject at an absolutely improper use.
On the contrary, thanks to its lasting experience, Piromak Ltd can afford to say with authority and precision what is meant by the term gasification, both from a theoretical and conceptual point of view, and from a practical aspect.
Piromak Ltd has achieved, from the date when it obtained the mentioned patent in 1981, more than a thousand realizations distributed worldwide (See the “Realizations” section of this site).
The “pirodistilgasogeno” was born from the experience of the first gasifier (1981) called BCS and it has been designed and realized in order to meet the needs of nowadays, first of all the possibility of obtaining low-cost power, created by machines at the reach of not only to government agencies but also of private citizens.
Piromak’s staff works toward continuous improvement and refinement of its systems, without losing sight of the clear aim to realize machines able to not only to meet the current needs, but also to anticipate future ones; all this combined with the search for more functional and profitable machines.
Buying a Piromak’s implant or machine means choosing a technology that is not born from improvisation, but from long experience and wisdom, which provide security and security.
In addition to the Pyrolyzer Gasifier, the standard system includes various other machines, depending on requirements, which are suitable for the preparation of the materials upstream of the process, as well as the ad hoc processing and transformation of the raw materials obtained from the process.
The following are some of the machine components:
- Turbo alembic: used in the process for separating gases from saturated hydrocarbons (liquids and solids such as tar and H2O are separated at a later time).
- Gas refiner: this machine is used to clean the gases. It removes all the particulate and micro dust, as well as a substantial part of the sulphur contained within them, and makes them suitable for use in internal combustion engines.
- Compressor: used to move the gases and pump them into a storage tank.
- Separator of liquids and solids: this machine is used to separate CH3OH from tar and from H2O and to channel each into its own container.
- CH3OH refiner: used to make petrol suitable for use.
- BCS gasifier engine module: used to produce thermal energy for the gasification process. Its potential varies according to plant capacity.
- Charger for materials to be gasified.
- Loader for engine: the engine (BCS) can also work with materials other than the materials to be gasified.
Note: As we have seen, the plant is formed of several machines. Therefore, each system is customised according to the customer needs and built after the project design phase. The cost can only be established after it is established which units and types of machines will be used.
The PYROLYZER GASIFIER is a machine made of other machines, whose operating principle was discovered by the engineer Domenico Tanfoglio in 1980. In those days, it was not possible to manufacture a machine of that kind because machines were not compliant with the law and were unable to extract gaseous or liquid hydrocarbons. A loophole in the law was then created and the famous DCS was made, which was the first machine that exploited the use of pyrolysis, which is a breaking down of all organic molecules, from the simplest to the most complex. Therefore, when molecules such as PVC (C2.H3.Cl polyvinyl chloride, also known as polyvinylchloride or by its corresponding abbreviation PVC is the polymer created from vinyl chloride. It is the most important polymer of the series obtained from vinyl monomers and is one of the most consumed plastics worldwide. By burning it in an incinerator, chlorinated dioxins are produced) are processed in the DCS, under no circumstances are dioxins produced, but only HCL (hydrochloric acid) which, when captured with lime (or CA) a good product such as calcium chloride (CA-CL) is produced. The same applies to other molecules, such as PCBs (polychlorinated biphenyls). A more detailed explanation will be given of these molecules which are highly toxic and environmentally hazardous.
POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS, often known by the abbreviation PCB, are a class of organic compound with a similar structure to the biphenyl, whose hydrogen atoms are substituted by between one and ten chlorine atoms. The generic molecular formula of PCBs is C12H10-xClx. These are considered persistent pollutants in terms of their toxicity, which in some cases is close to that of dioxins. The use of PCBs has declined since the seventies, due to the alarming environmental reputation generated around them, which led to their production being banned in many countries.
Toxicity of the different PCBs, as well as the mechanism of biological action, varies from compound to compound. The so-called non-ortho PCBs, or Co-PCBs (known as coplanar PCB, because of its two aromatic rings), are the most toxic compounds and the most similar to dioxins in terms of effects and properties. Additionally, partial oxidation, even as a result of incomplete combustion, can be the cause of chlorinated dioxins, including TCDD. The Brescia case: the production of PCB was prohibited for the first time in Japan in 1972, following an accident involving 2,000 people. It was then banned in the United States, starting in 1977, and in Italy, starting in 1983. In that year, the only Italian plant that produced PCBs, Caffaro Brescia, ceased to operate. That company, following acquisition in 1930 by Monsanto of patent rights of use, started to produce PCBs in 1932. Brescia and Anniston, in the USA, represent the world’s most extreme contaminators of PCB in water and soil, in terms the amount of dispersed toxic substance, extension of the contaminated area, numbers of the population involved and duration of production.
The values detected by ASL Brescia since 1999 are 5,000 times above the limits set by Ministerial Decree 471/1999 (levels for a residential areas, 0.001 mg/kg). As a result of that data and other investigations, an environmental disaster complaint was filed with the Public Prosecutor of Brescia in June 2001. Other sample surveys on the adult population of Brescia showed that residents of certain urban areas have PCB-emia values 10-20 times higher than those of reference. Unfortunately, millions of tons of this material have been sold worldwide, so it has been dispersed into the environment. Most of the technologies that have been adopted have done nothing other than cause damage by transforming PCBs into chlorinated dioxins, which are not produced by the DCS or the PYROLYZER GASIFIER which, thanks to the materials (industrial secret) contained in its processing equipment, generate an ion that treats the atoms, making them inclined to only produce HCL over chlorinated dioxins with the abatements seen above.
Given the metamorphosis of these two abovementioned difficult materials, it is obvious that no other organic materials are a problem. The discovery of this ion has made the process physical, with disintegration and molecular reformation that differs from the process that occurs in nature, in real-time, that takes 15-20 million years.
Construction of the first PYROLYZER GASIFIER in 2007
In 2007, the engineer Domenico Tanfoglio decided it was finally time for the world to see the PYROLYZER GASIFIER, which was formed by combining two machines with the same operating principle but used to perform very different tasks, with one mostly assisting the other to achieve the transformation of waste into products. The “philosopher’s apple” was obtained, with practically all waste material transformed completely, by extraction, into available products (that can be sold). At this point, the problem of waste is solved. Law on the conservation of mass by undergoing transformation (the law on the conservation of mass is a physical law of classical mechanics, which originates from the so-called fundamental postulate of Lavoisier, which is “Nothing is created, nothing is lost, everything is transformed” (Antoine Lavoisier).
HOW THE PYROLYZER GASIFIER DESCRIBED BELOW WORKS (PDG)
The components comprising the reactor include reactor tubes (known as smelting tubes), which are made of a unique metal alloy resulting from the private research of the engineer Domenico Tanfoglio. Organic and non-organic material is transferred via the smelting tubes using an Archimedes’ screw. When struck by the thermal energy produced by the DCS, the tubes disintegrate all organic material (MSW – municipal solid waste), including plastics, rubber, dioxins and all materials made of carbon-hydrogen-oxygen. It should be noted that disintegration means the breaking down of organic molecules (atomic compounds), releasing the atoms that make up the material, and de-storing of all atoms (C-H-O) when, during the remolecularisation dictated by nature, they do not reform into the molecular form they were in before disintegration, which is a frequent phenomenon in the case of man-made organic molecules, such as dioxins. (e.g. dioxin is a heterocyclic organic compound whose structure consists of a ring of four unsaturated carbon atoms, and two oxygen atoms, the molecular formula of which is C4H4O2. In the case of C-H-O disintegration, the tendency of incinerators is for downstream recomposition of the original molecule. However, if disintegration takes place in the smelting tube, or even in the DCS engine, the original molecule does not recompose, but will naturally form CH4 (C4.H4.O2 = CH4).
|TWO COGNITIVE NOTES ON C4H4O2 SINCE IT IS MORE PRESENT IN THIS ENVIRONMENT
Although dioxins originate as a class of chemical compounds from the molecules described above, they have dissimilar characteristics. Firstly, they are compounds that have a much higher molecular weight. Tetrachlorodibenzo para dioxin, known as TCDD, has a molecular weight almost four times higher. Dioxins are halogenated substances. They are often pluri-halogenated and are thermostable at high temperatures, with low volatility. They are carcinogenic substances or promoters of carcinogenicity, they are toxic, persistent and not easily biodegradable, accumulating particularly in the food chain, and have a very long half-life in any affected organisms. Toxicity is of a non-linear type and the mixture of dioxin-like substances has an unpredictable and potentially synergistic effect, due to the multiplicity of the toxic mechanisms involved. Oxidation reactions, such as those that occur in incinerators, steelworks with furnaces for secondary smelting, furnaces fuelled with environmentally unsuitable fuel, (for example, non-hazardous municipal waste containing chlorinated plastics, such as the PVC used as fuel for cement furnaces), and other civil and industrial combustion processes, are the main producers of dioxins.
PRODUCTS OBTAINED: the products obtained by processing of MSW are:
1 SYNGAS, a gas formed by molecules, such as CH4-CO-C3H8-CO2-C4H10 ethanes, pentans, with a calorific value ranging from 7/9,500 kcal kg.
2 SYNTHETIC OIL, a liquid hydrocarbon compound composed of CH3-OH-benzenes. It is an aromatic chain of benzenes, which in most cases can be used as fuel (diesel). It has a calorific value of 8/10,000 kcal
3 CARBON, the carbon obtained is almost always activated carbon. When the alveoli in its mass empty, the possibility of filtration is allowed. However, it is always a good fuel because the carbon percentage ranges from 60% to as high as 94%, which is the case of the carbon obtained from rubber (tyres).
Other products obtained, such as glass and metals, are inert and cannot disintegrate. In the case of metals, those released by organic material in the total absence of O2 are clean and shiny and of course have a high commercial value. The inert substances released from organic molecules can also prove to be highly useful in construction.
WHAT THE PRODUCTS OBTAINED CAN BE USED FOR: the value of the products obtained is to recoup costs for the plant and provide a fair return to those who have invested in the plant. In order to recoup costs, the products obtained must be sold directly on the raw materials market. Alternatively, raw materials such as gas and oil must be transformed into electricity. This can generate revenue when sold on the free market, or even when subsidised by the Italian National Grid Operator GSE. However, the cost of the processing plant can also be recouped by selling electricity on the free market and by selling the metals obtained, separating them beforehand according to their characteristics by machines at the plant. Another noteworthy source of revenue is the heat produced by the plant as a whole, (by producing one kw of E/E, 1.3 kw thermal energy is produced in cogeneration) + one Kw T. is produced by the Pyrolyzer Gasifier.
EXAMPLE OF USES PROVIDED BY PYROLYZER GASIFIER (PDG)
1 For reasons that will be confirmed over time, the Pyrolyzer Gasifier is suitable for any uses where there is a need to transform all kinds of organic materials, an urgent need for decontamination, or where there are epidemics etc. See below for better explanations.
2 Treatment of municipal solid waste (MSW). MSW has to be inserted in its unaltered state in whatever form it is collected. It is not necessary to separate it, unless it is too bulky or it is mixed with non-MSW. Waste, as it is collected from bins, will only require milling to make it manageable for mechanical transfer via the smelting tubes. The water contained in the waste is not a problem. However, the plant expels more energy in the process when working with watery waste (removing and replacing) than when working with dried waste, which is why less water is better. The Pyrolyzer Gasifier has a high caloric capacity when working with materials with a high caloric capacity materials, such as plastics and rubber. The main products derived from organic materials, gas and oil, reach a thermal power range of 7/10,000 kcal kg. One thing to be aware of is that an average of one kilogram of these two hydrocarbons produces 3.5 KWE + 4.5 KWT in cogeneration. The Pyrolyzer Gasifier produces an average of 7% metals, of which at least 6 parts out of 10 are as aluminium (AL). The barely visible metal part of chocolate wrappers can also be extracted and the Pyrolyzer Gasifier sublimates the cellulose part and leaves the aluminium part clean, so all other metals can be separated and sold. The carbon produced can be sold as fuel as it consists of no less than 70% pure carbon and its calorific value can reach as high as 7,000 kcal kg. The average amount obtainable from the total waste is 23%.
3 Hospital Toxic Waste Treatment
• the waste covered by the sector are:
• non-hazardous medical waste;
• sanitary waste similar to municipal waste;
• hazardous medical waste that is not a risk of infection;
• hazardous medical waste that is a risk of infection;
• medical waste requiring special disposal methods;
• waste from exhumations and disinterment as well as waste from other cemetery activities.
• hazardous waste produced outside of health facilities, which in terms of risk is similar to hazardous waste that is a risk of infection.
In the waste processing plant, the Pyrolyzer Gasifier can treat all types of hospital and cemetery waste which can be supplied to the establishment in special boxes or bags. At the plant it will undergo a pre-treatment as required by law, then it will be added to the Pyrolyzer Gasifier. In this case, the products obtained are notable and do not cause any problems, since the raw materials obtained are similar to those obtained from other waste.
4 Butcher’s waste, animals that have died from epidemics and similar can be treated. Butcher waste can be very dangerous if not processed when fresh, as can animals that died from epidemics or strays which, when are brought the plant, must be added to the Pyrolyzer Gasifier for a maximum of one hour.
5 Treatment of sludge, sludge from sewage treatment plants, oily sludge or hydrocarbon waste, organic sludge of industrial origin, etc. Sludge treatment is very useful in terms of the results from processing into products. Naturally, the more organic the waste, the more products are produced.
6 All types of biomass can be treated, especially animal and humans by-products and real or synthetic leather fabrics.
7 Treatment of tyres: tyres and rubbery materials of any kind produce three basic products with the better qualitative characteristics than any other waste because, as well as producing gas and oil, they produce the best activated carbon that exists, as well as a black carbon with market value of up to € 5,000/ton.
8 Note: all this waste can also be processed mixed. The important factor is particle size.
WHY IS THE PYROLYZER GASIFIER THE RESOLUTIVE PLANT IN THE FIELD OF WASTE
Again, with reference to Antoine Lavoisier, waste reprocessed into raw material restarts its life as a useful material and then again becomes waste and so the cycle continues. As well as reconverting waste into products, what else can it be practically used for? Products can be used to make other products, and so on, and thousands of combinations and technological compositions have been discovered by human intelligence. We would not often have to extract materials from other natural raw materials, because it would be sufficient to recycle and regenerate the raw materials we already have available. This would cost us less and we would not have to disturb the soil and exploit the depths of the earth. It is also time to stop disseminating incorrect information to people, just for selfish or political interests, because misinformed people cause damage in the name of the democracy for everyone, as they put up barriers and set up committees against any initiative. More should be made of those with knowledge and the smart ones should be taken from each category in the market.
WHAT IS THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN FOSSIL METHANE AND METHANE GAS FROM THE PYROLYZER GASIFIER?
WHAT IS METHANE: Methane is a simple hydrocarbon (alkane), formed of one carbon and 4 hydrogen atoms. Its chemical formula is CH4 and is found in nature in the form of gas. The methane molecule has a tetrahedral shape. The carbon atom is at the centre of a regular tetrahedron whose vertices are the hydrogen atoms. The bond angles are 109.5°. A particular feature of the bonds between the one carbon and 4 hydrogen atoms is that the carbon atom, in its fundamental electronic (non-excited) state, it would have only two valence electrons, and as a result would have the possibility of creating only two bonds. However, the carbon atom forms 4 bonds with as many hydrogen atoms. This means that during the formation of the bonds, in the carbon atom, which has 4 electrons on the orbital level and a main quantum number equal to 2, an electron is excited (energy is supplied) triggering the formation of four equivalent sp3 hybrid atomic orbitals. The valence electrons then become four, and carbon atom forms four bonds. All this is possible because of the decrease of energy of the C H H H H system, which is achieved through the formation of 4 bonds instead of two, has a higher absolute value than the energy required to excite an electron. As a result, the final energy of the system with 4 bonds will be lower than the energy of the system with 2 bonds. Therefore, it is more stable at ambient temperature and when under pressure, appearing as a colourless, odourless and highly flammable gas.
PROBLEMS WITH EXTRACTING METHANE GAS FROM FOSSILS
It is known to the experts that approximately two-thirds of all extracted fossil methane is not used, because the cost of transporting natural gas along pipelines is four times higher than that of oil, owing to the much lower density of the gas (one litre of diesel is equivalent to 1.221 litres of methane gas). Methane is usually present in oil fields (but there are also huge deposits of methane alone that nature has seen fit to store. We will explain why later). Methane comes from source rocks (through the cracking of kerogen), while all hydrocarbons are in turn derived from the latter (from solids such as bitumen and liquids such as oil, to gases, such as methane). When oil is extracted, methane also rises to the surface, in quantities which on average are the same as those for oil. If the deposits are far from the location of consumption or are situated offshore, it is almost impossible to use that methane, which is then burned at the well outlet, where it is not used in any way but creates the pollution we will discuss below.
BURNING OF METHANE
Methane is the main component of natural gas and is an excellent fuel because it has a high calorific value. By burning a methane molecule in the presence of oxygen, one carbon dioxide (CO2) molecule is formed, as well as two H2O (water) molecules and a quantity of heat is released: CH4 + 2O2 → CO2 +2H2O . By combustion of a normal cubic metre of methane, approximately 39.79 MJ (9,503.86 kcal) is obtained, with a density of 0.66 kg m3.
WHY IS IT EXTREMELY HARMFUL TO USE FOSSIL METHANE (CH4), BUT NOT METHANE (CH4) FROM THE PYROLYZER GASIFIER?
It goes without saying that all fossil fuels are dangerous because their mass will persist for ever on the earth’s crust. However, the investigation is now focussing on methane in general (CH4) and the other fossil hydrocarbons will be investigated on another occasion. Fossil methane: in addition to the damage that fossil methane causes, which is 21 times more than the greenhouse effect of CO2 when it is released into the atmosphere through various leaks on pipelines or through its combustion, it is a fact that burning each molecule produces one molecule of CO2 and 2 molecules of water (H2O). This stems from the fact that its mass is magnified by the production of three molecules that we have in nature. All around the world, people with a targeted interest have put the idea in our heads that the CO2 molecule is harmful. But they are completely wrong. The CO2 produced, to a limit, is absorbed by vegetation and other forms of life (such as algae), which absorb carbon and replace it by releasing oxygen (O2) into the atmosphere. However, the most harmful element is the hydrogen, the purpose of which is to form two molecules of water (H2O). But you could say, what harm does water cause? Water itself causes no harm. However, its formation does nothing but steal oxygen from the atmosphere and impoverish it. We also know that excess water does not replenish the deserts but causes more damage in other areas and it no one gets alarmed because water is always remade. Practically speaking, in the not too distant future, by continuing to extract fossil fuels, we eventually drown and we will not have enough oxygen to live.
Having said that, you could say that methane (CH4) produced by the PYROLYZER GASIFIER also does the same thing. No, it is not the same, because the hydrogen and carbon used for the formation of hydrocarbons by the PYROLYZER GASIFIER are obtained from elements already on the Earth’s crust, so they are essentially a recycling of elements that are already present, for example, waste or biomass. Carbon and hydrogen are obtained directly from the material disintegration process and the missing hydrogen is obtained by breaking up water already present in the environment. Therefore, after the methane gas obtained from the process is used, the water released into the environment is the water that was previously extracted from it (nothing has been given or taken from the atmosphere by using the energy produced by the aforementioned molecular metamorphosis).
The PYROLYZER GASIFIER is not an invention but a discovery made by the engineer Domenico Tanfoglio, derived from an intuition scrutinizing the “loophole” that Nature uses to naturally manage itself. Nature always triumphs, despite how long it takes. If Nature did not confine those large amounts of hydrogen (H2) to the abyss, in turn bonding them with other atoms such as carbon, the Earth would not be habitable, as no life forms could appear if there was only water without oxygen. The PYROLYZER GASIFIER does not work based on strange mechanics, but based on physics. In other words, the process is achieved by triggering the procedure with the heat and the ions that certain materials found in nature produce, as they always have done in nature.
I am the modest researcher who humbly approached nature since 1971 to steal some of her small secrets. I think nature has been good by allowing her “young son” to learn more than he already knew. Every now and then we should rewrite accepted opinions as certainties, accepting evidence to the contrary, and we should stop educating people with too many scientific lies.
Yours sincerely, engineer D. Tanfoglio